History of CRPF History of CRPF

History of CRPF

Union of India for internal security

The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) is the premier central police force of the Union of India for internal security. Originally constituted as the Crown Representative Police in 1939, it is one of the oldest Central para military forces (now termed as Central Armed Police Force). CRPF was raised as a sequel to the political unrest and the agitations in the then princely States of India following the Madras Resolution of the All-India Congress Committee in 1936 and the ever-growing desire of the Crown Representative to help the vast majority of the native States to preserve law and order as a part of the imperial policy

Central Reserve Police Force by an Act of ParliamentAfter Independence, the force was renamed as Central Reserve Police Force by an Act of Parliament on December 28, 1949. This Act constituted CRPF as an armed force of the Union. Sardar Vallabh bhai Patel, the then Home Minister, visualized a multi-dimensional role for it in tune with the changing needs of a newly independent nation. The CRPF Rules as envisaged in CRPF Act were framed in 1955 and published in the Gazette of India dated March 25, 1955. Shri V.G.Kanetkar was appointed as first DG, CRPF.

During the early 1950s, the performance of the CRPF detachments in Bhuj, the then Patiala and East Punjab state Union (PEPSU) and Chambal ravines was appreciated by all quarters. The force played a significant role during the amalgamation of the princely States into the Indian Union. It helped the Union Government in disciplining the rebellious princely States of Junagarh and the small principality of Kathiawar in Gujarat which had declined to join the Indian Union.

CRPF were sent on Kutch, Rajasthan and Sindh borders

Soon after Independence, contingents of the CRPF were sent on Kutch, Rajasthan and Sindh borders to check infiltration and trans-border crimes. They were, subsequently, deployed on the Pakistan border in Jammu and Kashmir following attacks launched by the Pakistani infiltrators. The CRPF bore the brunt of the first Chinese attack on India at Hot Springs (Ladakh) on October 21, 1959. A small CRPF patrol was ambushed by the Chinese in which ten of its men made their supreme sacrifice for the country. Their martyrdom on October 21 is remembered throughout the country as the Police Commemoration Day every year.

Indian Army in Arunachal Pradesh

During the Chinese aggression of 1962, the Force once again assisted the Indian Army in Arunachal Pradesh. Eight CRPF personnel were killed in action. In 1965 and 1971 Indo-Pak wars also the Force fought shoulder-to-shoulder with the Indian Army, both on the Western and Eastern borders.

For the first time in the history of para-military Forces in India, thirteen companies of CRPF including a detachment of women were airlifted to join the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka to fight the militant cadres. Besides, CRPF personnel were also sent to Haiti, Namibia, Somalia Maldives, Kosovo and Liberia to deal with law and order situation there, as a part other UN Peace Keeping Force.

In the late seventies, when the extremist elements disturbed peace in Tripura and Manipur, CRPF battalions were deployed in strength. Simultaneously, there was a turmoil in the Brahmaputra Valley. The CRPF had to be inducted in strength not only to maintain law and order but also to keep lines of communication free from disruption. The commitments of the Force continue to be very high in the North East in dealing with the insurgency.

CRPF is the largest CAPF having 01 Force Hqrs, 04 Zonal Hqrs, 21 Adm Sectors, 02 Ops Sectors, 39 Adm Ranges, 17 Ops Ranges,43 Group Centres, 22 Training Institutions, 04 Composite Hospitals (100 Bedded), 18 Composite Hospitals (50 bedded),06 Field Hospitals 03 CWS, 07 AWS, 02 MWS and 01 SWS , 203 GD Bns, 05 VIP Security Bns, 06 Mahila Bns, 15 RAF, 10 CoBRA Bns,05 Signal Bns,01 PDG & 01 SDG.

CRPF has a national character and composition; it is known as Miniature India. Even at section level, persons from all parts of the Country are mixed up. They are peace custodians and sentinels of India's integrity.

CRPF is a gallant, glorious, vibrant and resilient Force. Its past is replete with pinnacle performance and success in many fields. It is acknowledged by the public. Thus, the myth of CRPF duties conjured an image of doing dangerous duties successfully.

After Kargil war, a high level committee was constituted by the Govt. of India who emphasized that multiplicity of forces on the same border has also led to lack of accountability on the parts of the forces. To enforce the accountability, the principle of 'One Border One Force' may be adopted while considering deployment of Forces at the border.

Accordingly, the Indo-Pakistan border and Indo-Bangladesh border given to BSF; the Indo-Myanmar border given to Assam Rifles; the Indo-Nepal border is given to SSB; and the Indo-Chinese border given to ITBP. Each of these forces has also been designated as the lead intelligence agency for that particular border for sharing with the other paramilitary forces and the Army which may be in the hinterland and being able to co-ordinate all the operations. As a part of this exercise, it has also been decided that CRPF will be the major Force which would be dealing with counter insurgency or internal security operations all over the country.

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